Learning With Pedagogical Models: Videos As Adjuncts to Apprenticeship for Surgical Training
Videos are a powerful media to learn activities through guided physical training such as surgery, especially when they are produced following human learning models and not as "how-to" videos. However, their success greatly depends on how they are integrated into the extensive curricula of domains where learning occurs through guided practice. In this work, we investigate the impact of integrating video as a learning tool into the learning curricula of surgery. We created a pedagogical video on surgical hysterectomy through a model based on the Conceptual Fields theory (Vergnaud) and performed two rounds of interviews with seven medical residents, who watched the video freely during their residency in gynecology-obstetrics as they trained with experts. We fnd that videos can complement guided physical training, as they can provide the rationale behind expert action, something that is difcult to explicit during guided training. Still, their linear and static nature limits their integration as true adjuncts. We discuss our vision of moving towards interactive videos created with an ontological approach, developed in a workshop with four expert surgeons, which involves the ability to navigate through levels of information and layers of representations, so that experts can represent information to learners according to pedagogical models that complement their complex and extensive learning curricula.